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428                 HISTORY OF PERSIA                 CHAP.
Zil-u-Sultan's- adherents, and the Pretender hastened
to submit arid was present at the coronation of his
nephew. The Farman Farma was a more dangerous
rival, and the English General was soon marching south
to attack him ; Isfahan was reached by a forced march
and shortly afterwards the rebel army was encountered
near Kumishah. I have visited the site of the battle,
which was decided by artillery fire, against which the
nomad horsemen would not stand. The Farman Farma
fled, but was captured, and died on the way to prison at
Meanwhile Khorasan had revolted, but its turbulent
chiefs submitted. In Laristan and Arabistan also there
were outbreaks, but these troubles were put down, partly
at any rate thanks to Rawlinson, who had recently
arrived in Persia.
The Second British Military Mission.—In 1832-33
Indian interest in Persia was so far aroused that a quantity
'of arms, ammunition, and accoutrements was presented
to the Shah. .This handsome gift was followed in 1834
by an important Military Mission, in which all arms of
the service were represented. Among the officers who
were to win distinction were Rawlinson, Stoddart, Shell,
and D'Arcy Todd. From the start the English officers
were treated with jealousy and hostility by the Persians ;
they had no control over the pay or promotion of the
Persian corps, and the young Shah did not support them.
In 1836 the members of the English Mission at the
royal camp were dismissed with insult; and in 1838,
when Sir John McNeill hauled down his flag and broke
ofF relations with Persia, all the British officers left with
Haji Mirza AghasL—Upon his accession Mohamed
Shah brought from Tabriz his Minister, known as the
Kaim Makam, or Deputy Governor. This personage
had established an extraordinary ascendancy over his
master, but as he insisted on directing every branch of
the administration himself even the rough machinery
of the Persian Government came to a standstill. When
the position was realized by Mohamed Shah the un-